Outside Publicists


Many writers hear through the grapevine that they must get an outside publicist. They’re told that publishing houses are overburdened. That most of the marketing dollars go to the already established authors. And, even worse, that as budding authors they may only get one shot to establish their track record. The result can be a lot of anxiety: how can a first-time author hit a home run out of the gate, especially if they aren’t their publisher’s top priority? Should they pay for outside help? Is outside help the only way to guarantee a book’s success?


Outside publicists can be expensive. They can also be a good investment. Some are terrific. Others disappoint.

As always, you must consider what is right for you and your book.  The best way to avoid a sub-optimal result is to be very clear on what you want out of the process, communicate those goals clearly, decide who can best deliver what you need, and, yes, determine what that help is worth to you.

To start, ask yourself some basic questions:

What skills or opportunities would you like to improve? Are you a social media standout but lack experience public speaking? Or maybe you’re comfortable lecturing to groups, but you’re Twitter-averse. Many nonfiction authors are subject-experts but have never had to discuss their personal narrative. Most first-time authors lack personal contacts in the media and/or have never had to offer broadcast media soundbites. An outside publicist can help you fill your personal gaps.

What kinds of promotion are you interested in? I’ll delve into two big categories–media training and traditional promotion/marketing–below.

What does your agent and publishing house recommend? Are they encouraging you to get outside help? And what kind of help do they think will benefit you the most? Each house has its own strengths and weaknesses. Outside assistance should usefully supplement a house’s existing efforts, not create unnecessary overlap. You also want to ensure that everyone can play nicely in the sandbox. So ask your in-house team about people they like to work with. And consult with the team about any recommendations you get from outside sources.

How much are you willing to pay? As with most things in life, good help is expensive. Figure out a realistic budget and let others know so they can steer you accordingly.

Now that you’ve asked yourself some basic questions, let’s define your specific goals.

Generally, your marketing and publicity goals should be to:

Develop a message about the book. By the time your book is published, you, your editor, the in-house marketing and publicity team, and your publisher should have developed a straightforward pitch for the book. That message will turn up in your jacket copy, in the sales catalog, in the press release and in other documents. When these are sent to you for review, study them carefully. This is a key opportunity to process and contribute to the framing of your message. For more on a book’s “pitch,” see my blog post on creating a hook for your book. 

Develop your personal message. You aren’t just selling your book. You’re also selling yourself. Like it or not, all authors get asked about themselves. To respond effectively, you want to find and hone the elements of your personal and professional story.  Why were you the only person who could write this book? Interviewers want to know more than just your credentials; they also want to know who you are and your personal connection to the work. This is also known as personal branding. Even if you hate the term, as I do, the reality is you need to be able to communicate a succinct personal and professional narrative. An expert can help you shape your story .

Connect you and your book to national and local press. It’s crucial to have a PR person with great connections to the national media, local media, and media groups specific to your project. A good publicist has a recent track and is abreast of who in the press is looking for what. It’s going to be hard to find the person who has their finger in every niche appropriate to your book. There are a lot of niches to tap and no one person can know it all. You’ll need to figure out the best person overall for you and your project. On their part, the consultant should also be evaluating client fit. Finally, look at other projects the publicist has worked on. And don’t be afraid to ask a publicist’s previous clients about their experiences with him/her.

With those overall marketing and publicity goals in mind, let’s look at two different types of PR help: media training/brand consulting and a more traditional book PR route.

Media training focuses on prepping you for public speaking engagements and media interviews. It will help you to develop a way of communicating about your book, your writing, and your personal storyline that’s clear, effective, gets to the point quickly, and stays on point. You may already have some public speaking skills. Maybe you’ve even done some local media: podcasts, talks, local radio etc. But you still may not be ready for prime time. National and local media are two very different beasts. Your average guest on a national TV or radio segment has very little time to communicate their thoughts. These outlets want people who already know how to deliver their message clearly, quickly, and effectively. Media training can help you hone your speaking skills both generally and specific to the project you currently want to promote.

Traditional book promotion and marketing will focus more on developing and disseminating the book’s message. These publicists may offer additional mailings and reach out to their personal press contacts. They will also help you set up webinars, blog tours, and in-store events. All these efforts should supplement rather than replace in-house efforts and expertise.

A consultant who specializes in book promotion may also offer media training. Ask up front. The more information you have, the better.

What’s important to you? Both media training and traditional promotion help can get expensive. How do you decide what’s worth paying for? Again, it depends on your goals. Are you an expert in your field and/or budding celebrity looking to develop your national brand and expand your national audience? Do you want to do more personal messaging/branding/training? Or is your focus purely on selling the book?

Note that if the latter is the case, I recommend a costs vs. benefits talk with your agent/house. Do they think hiring outside help will truly boost sales of the work? As above, the house will do a fair amount of the messaging and disseminating already.

Bottom line: there are a lot of options. Figure out what your personal goals are. Consult with your agent and publisher on what options they would suggest and who they work effectively with. Build your team the same way you would in any business: find the best people who can all play nicely together. Ask for written plans and prices from any outside help you are considering hiring. Then only spend on the help that will contribute what will be valuable to you.

What’s a Good Hook for My Book? (Nonfiction)


A great hook is like your credit card, you never want to leave home without it. Whether you’re at the beginning of your writing process or you’re in the final stages of giving readings and talks, it’s essential to have a concise, snappy elevator pitch that conveys the essence of your work.

Early on, a good hook helps you solidify your ideas for your new project. As you start to shop the proposal, it will attract an agent to your work. Finally, it will help booksellers sell the finished book. An effective pitch explains why you’re devoting several years to the project. And why others will want to read it.

What does a good hook consist of? It’s a few sentences that 1) showcase what makes your book unique, 2) tell us why it matters, and 3) offer a glimpse of your narrative strategy or how you intend to tell your story. Let’s look at each of these in more detail.


A writing teacher of mine used to say that coming up with formulas for reading or writing was a pointless exercise; all the great books and great films teach you how to read them. His point was that every important work of art is unique. That’s what makes them exceptional. Your book and your pitch are no different. You need to tap into and explain what’s different and special about your project. Unique worlds, unique takes, a unique body of knowledge, and/or unique characters/relationships may all vault your project from slush to acceptance pile.

A Different World: Uncharted terrains are always a lure. What’s a relatively unexplored corner of history? A part of the world we don’t often see? A company or industry we’ve never glimpsed from the inside? We all love brave new worlds. Smart authors use that to their advantage when they pitch their works.

In Behind the Beautiful Forevers, Katherine Boo peels back the curtain for an in-depth look at the invisible families left behind by a booming India. Boo takes us on a guided tour of a part of Mumbai that most readers have rarely experienced or seen up close. Unsurprisingly, the fresh world is something every invariably glowing review of Boo’s book notes.

Similarly, Michael Lewis’s The Big Short takes us inside the world of bond and real estate derivatives markets. We go on a journey with several outsiders who foresaw the risks that were piling up and the economic devastation that would follow in the wake of  the burst real estate bubble. We’d heard about CDOs and subprime mortgages in the news, but a deep delve into the lives of those markets’ successful speculators before and during the 2008 crash was a unique angle.

H is for Hawk, a beautiful and heartbreaking tale of loss and grief that plays out in the unusual world of falconry, a sport most of us have had no contact with and know little about.

In all these examples, a unique world grabs our attention and contributes to a stand out hook.

What’s Your Take: Some worlds and subjects are perennials in the nonfiction landscape: the Revolution, the Civil War, poverty, and crime. Nowadays even the brain is a familiar subject. Why do we pick up yet another book on familiar subjects such as the psychology of success or our Founding Fathers? As any lover of Hamilton the musical can tell you, it’s all in the take. What do you have that’s new to say on the subject? Do you have novel insight into a universal problem or emotion? Are you upending the conventional wisdom?

In Evicted, Matthew Desmond tackles extreme poverty through the unique lens of families who rent. Eviction, once rare, has become the norm for many. Arguing that evictions have become yet another lucrative business model contributing to our growing inequality, Desmond shows that we cannot talk about urban poverty in America today without a serious discussion of housing and its hardships.

It’s conventional wisdom to “Trust your gut.” But do we really understand what we mean when we talk about our intuition or how we make decisions? In Thinking Fast and Slow, Daniel Kahneman breaks our thinking down into two systems: system 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; system 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. Rethinking how we think, Kahneman reveals how we swerve away from rationality, how we can correct our biased misunderstandings, and how we can make better choices.

Desmond and Kahneman both turn the conventional wisdom on its head. Their new and surprising takes on the familiar subjects of poverty and the psychology of decision-making compel our attention to their work.

The Brilliant Tour: Some authors aren’t looking to pick a fight. They’re more concerned with educating their readers. Their books are unique in helping readers understand an otherwise complicated field or a phenomenon. Success lies in clear and lucid explanation of complex topics or in a compelling description of something new in the landscape.

Books such as Michio Kaku’s The Future of the Mind are as much a brilliant tour of the latest advancements in neuroscientific research as they are novel argument. Likewise, American Girls by Nancy Jo Sales is less a convention-busting argument than a compelling portrait of young women coming of age in a brave new online world ruled by frequently hostile forms of social media.

Captivating Characters/Relationships: Flawed and charismatic characters dominate nonfiction much as they do novels or the movies. We’re drawn to biographies of men like John Adams or The Wright Brothers (David McCullough again) for the brilliant, complex men at their core. Similarly in her bestselling work of narrative nonfiction, Unbroken, Laura Hillenbrand weaves an enthralling tale of the contradictory Louis Zamperini, a juvenile delinquent turned defiant Olympian who drew on his stubbornness and his ingenuity to survive a crash into the Pacific during World War II. Great characters and relationships make or break many a nonfiction work. Writers of memoir often forget to ask themselves: but am I an interesting character? If not, you’ve got more work to do.


Once you’ve identified what makes your book unique, the next step is to answer the question of why the reader will care. Sometimes we care because we finish the book with a better understanding of the world than we had when we started. Or we might gain practical knowledge that we can immediately put to work, a major appeal of self-help titles. Sometimes, as with novels, we’re gripped by a compelling tale with high emotion and high stakes. Sometimes we simply better understand ourselves reading about others. There are different ways of making your reader care. But for a proper hook, you must be able to say why a reader will want, or more than that, why the reader MUST HAVE this book.


Let’s say you already have a great idea that’s easy to get others excited about. You may even have already written the magazine or journal article articulating your stimulating contribution. But then when it comes to writing the book you realize you are lost. How can you possibly come up with 85,000+ words on this topic? One way to come to terms with whether you’ve got a book-length project in you and your idea is to try and articulate your narrative strategy.

One caveat before we explore a few strategy or structure options. Many writers’ first instinct is to simply relay events in chronological order. Chronology can be a powerful tool. But beware relying on it too heavily. Use chronology to help put your major events in sequence, but don’t be a slave to temporal order. Pure chronology can leads you down the path of writing a work that simply relates one damn thing after another. What are some alternatives?

There are as many narrative strategies as there are books and writers. Let’s start with three of the most common: a journey structure, an argument structure, or an explanatory structure.

The Journey: If you’re writing a historical tale, a biography, or even a story of current events, sometimes the best approach is to think about the specific journey you want to tell. Journey structure allows you to identify a beginning, a middle and an end to the tale. It allows you to build in suspense: how will the journey end? Will the heroine achieve her goal? Will the journey transform our main subject or character? Books don’t need to cover an individual (or phenomenon’s) life from cradle to grave, with all the detritus that implies. Focus on a specific slice of life, the meaningful bits. The vast middle of the book, or the road trip itself, is then structured by the salient conflicts—and only the important conflicts–that happen along the way. Journey structure focuses on a life’s most dramatic arc rather than the much less readable kitchen sink that most lives resemble.

In Hisham Matar’s Pulitzer Prize-winning work, The Return, we accompany the author on a journey back to his native Libya. As Matar searches for the truth of his father’s disappearance, we learn about Libya’s political past and present and about how one man deals with unthinkable loss. Journey structures are staples for fiction as well as non-fiction storytelling, one reason so many narrative non-fiction authors love them. And because we readers instinctively follow journey structure, it’s often a good choice for the base narrative of a book that has multiple narratives braided in and/or some complex chronological moves. [Here’s a fascinating discussion of Rebecca’s Skloot use of journey structure for The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, a book with a very complex structure.]

The Argument: Perhaps you are writing an argument book rather than a history. Argument books can be broken down into three basic parts often called “the what”, the “so-what” and the “then-what.” The “what” identifies the conventional wisdom you are tackling. What do others say on this topic? What’s your take? What’s new? Part II addresses the “so-what”. It explains why it all matters. How will what we do or what we think change as a result of your new take? Finally, in Part III you can address the “then-what”. Armed with this new take, what do we do now?

In the bestselling Fat Chance, Dr. Robert Lusting argues that obesity is not a behavioral aberration or a character flaw. He believes we can’t address our national weight problem by characterizing it as one of gluttony or sloth or diet or exercise. The problem, he claims, is sugar. In Part 1, Lustig challenges the conventional wisdom that a calorie is just a calorie and shows how sugar is especially deadly for our eating habits. And in Parts 2 and 3, he focuses on the science of obesity: how the body burns energy versus storage. These are all the “what”. Part 4 is the “so what”: it explains the toxicity for our body chemistry of our current fructose-filled, reduced fiber environment and how the American global diet is killing us. Parts 5 and 6 are the “now-what,” or the proposed personal and public health solutions. It’s a strong structure for a powerful argument book.

The Explanation: A third approach to structure is the explanatory book. In these works, chapters are laid out in a sequence that best explains the topic at hand. The bestselling Seven Brief Lessons on Physics by Carlo Rovelli was exactly that. Chapters can focus on key topics in the field or key questions and ideas. Argument books try to instigate change; explanatory books document it.

These are just a few examples of narrative strategies. There are others. Writers endlessly debate structure. The best writers invent structures that uniquely fit the tale they want to tell.

Don’t worry if you experience some doubts about your chosen structure. Structures are bedeviling right up until the moment you nail them, at which point the triumph is sweet. Also, remember, a book’s shape will often transform as it is written. The most important thing is to get some kind of blueprint down. A clear structure map will attract an agent and sell the proposal. It will also keep you on track as you embark on your book writing journey. Being able to clearly identify a narrative strategy up front strengthens your pitch or hook for your book.


What does a good hook consist of? Remember you only have a few sentences. You want to tell the listener 1) what makes your book unique, 2) why it matters, and 3) offer a glimpse of your narrative strategy or how you intend to tell your story. Don’t over worry it if things evolve as you go along. Relax and have fun with it. It’s all part of the process of good writing.

Questions? Thoughts? Add them in the comments below.

Short Story Collections


What makes a short story collection attractive to a publisher? Perhaps you’ve finished your MFA and have finally accumulated a number of polished shorts. Or maybe short form is simply your preferred mode of expression and true love. How do you attract a publisher’s attention for your work?

There’s no easy answer. To be blunt, most agents and editors prefer a first novel to a collection of stories. Novels are simply easier to market and sell. Yet every year short story collections are published and attract attentive readers. Why do some collections fail to impress while others fly through the gates?

The writing matters. Remember: it’s writing first. Every agent or editor I know is a sucker for a great read. So make sure your work is that. Take classes. Hone your work with your writing group. Ask others with professional experience for feedback. Make sure your stories are sharpened to hard, glittering gems.

It can also be about the promise of a future body of work. An agent may take a flyer on an author who shows they’ve got the writing chops for stellar works down the line, whether it’s another collection, a novel, or perhaps even a memoir or narrative nonfiction work. It’s always good to be able to spell out what you’re up to next. What’s book two? Be ready to discuss.

Recommendations matter. If you have champions in the literary world, be sure to alert your prospective agent and editor. Almost all big success stories in publishing start with word of mouth. The word on you begins with those who know you and your writing best. Ask that nationally-known teacher or mentor if you can use their praise in a query letter. Or excerpt from the speech for the award that you just received. Praise matters. Just  make sure it comes from those who have established themselves as a trusted source. No asking your second grade teacher or your Mom. Dad’s love and admiration may have gotten you where you are, but publishers look for recognized awards and names in the literary landscape.

Finally, publication matters. If someone else has seen fit to publish your work, it’s an added incentive for publishers. And no, I’m not just talking the New Yorker. Publication in nationally recognized literary magazines including Tin House, Ploughshares, The Atlantic, A Public Space, and Kenyon Review similarly impress. Likewise, if your work has been published in online magazines like Blackbird or the Adirondack Review or by journals that supplement their print magazines with online material like Agni Magazine, shout it from the rooftops. If you’ve had a story included in a “best of” anthology or anthology by theme, cite it. Publication elsewhere is a pre-approval stamp. Another respected publisher liked and admired your work. Also, publication means your name is out there already. Readers may be looking for more from your pen.

Building on this last point, platform and name recognition matter. Maybe you published a story online on reddit. And you got tens of thousands of hits. If you’ve got a following or can show a deep online footprint for your literary work, put the facts in your query letter. Being able to prove that your existing work is read and adored helps bolster your case. As with all types of book proposals, having a pre-existing platform can only help.

Finally, just to reiterate the beginning, make sure your samples are a great read.

Questions? Post in the comments below. And good luck!